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DEPRESSION



Depression is a mood disorder that causes persistent feelings of sadness and a loss of interest in activities that were once pleasurable and rewarding.


It can disrupt sleep and appetite, and it is common to experience fatigue and lack of concentration. The effects of depression can be prolonged or recurring, significantly impairing a person's ability to function and live a fulfilling life.


There are different types of depression:

  • Major depressive disorder: includes symptoms of depression most of the time for at least 2 weeks, which generally interfere with the ability to work, sleep, study, and eat.

  • Persistent depressive disorder: includes less severe symptoms of depression that last much longer, usually for at least 2 years.

  • Perinatal depression: occurs when a woman experiences major depression during pregnancy or after childbirth.

  • Seasonal affective disorder: comes and goes with the seasons, usually starting in late autumn and early winter and disappearing during spring and summer.

  • Depression with psychotic symptoms: a severe form of depression in which a person experiences symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions or hallucinations.




SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

If you have been experiencing most of the following signs and symptoms for most of the day, nearly every day, for at least two weeks, you may be suffering from depression:

  • Persistent feelings of sadness, anxiety, or "emptiness."

  • Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism.

  • Feelings of irritability, frustration, or restlessness.

  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness.

  • Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities.

  • Decreased energy, fatigue, or feeling "slowed down."

  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions.

  • Difficulty sleeping, waking up early in the morning, or oversleeping.

  • Changes in appetite or unplanned weight changes.

  • Thoughts of death or suicide, or suicide attempts.

  • Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems without a clear physical cause that do not improve even with treatment.

  • Suicide attempts or thoughts of death or suicide.

IT IS NOT! UNFORTUNATELY, DEPRESSION IS HIGHLY STIGMATIZED. DEPRESSION IS NOT...
  • A weakness or character flaw.

  • An emotion that positive thinking alone will improve.

  • Just being in a bad mood.




WHAT ARE THE CAUSES?

While there is no single cause of depression, most experts believe that a combination of biological, social, and psychological factors contribute to the risk of developing depression.


BIOLOGICAL

When considering genetics or a family history of depression, changes in brain neurochemistry, especially alterations in neurotransmitters (such as serotonin), are believed to play a role.

SOCIAL

Traumatic life events, stressful social situations, limited access to resources, and lack of social support contribute to the risk of depression.

PSYCHOLOGICAL

Negative thoughts and problematic coping behaviors, such as avoidance and substance abuse, increase our vulnerability to depression.

TREATMENT AND THERAPIES

Depression, even the most severe cases, can be treated. The earlier the treatment begins, the more effective it is.

MEDICATIONS

Antidepressants are commonly used medications to treat depression. They can help improve how your brain uses certain chemicals that regulate mood or stress.

THERAPIES

Various types of psychotherapy (also called "talk therapy" or "counseling") can help people with depression by teaching them new ways of thinking and behaving and how to change habits that contribute to depression.


Psychotherapies Various types of psychotherapy (also called "talk therapy" or "counseling") can help people with depression by teaching them new ways of thinking and behaving and how to change habits that contribute to depression..



DEPRESIÓN
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